India’s Strategic Responses to China’s Perception of New World Order


China refers to itself as the Middle Kingdom or Zhongguo, but this concept goes beyond geography. It suggests that the world’s cultural, political, and economic hub is China. China’s perspective on international cooperation, including the institutions, laws, and standards that govern it, has been greatly influenced by this Sino-centrist worldview. Whereas, India always held a belief in global harmony which was demonstrated in the current G20 summit’s logo and the theme of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.” 

This fundamental contrast illustrates the foundation of India and China’s international policies. The BRI has already demonstrated China’s international policies which are aggressive due to its trading practices, and financial enticements alongside other controversies. This paper aims to analyze China’s perception of the New World Order which was put forth in the form of the Global Development Initiative, Global Security Initiative, and Global Civilisation Initiative. The strategic measures taken by India to counter China’s New World order will be further examined. The goal of this paper is to analyze different issues and further offer a way forward. 


Beijing Consensus which discusses the political and economic policy of China holds paramount significance as it has contributed to China’s  ‘economic miracle’ and an eight-fold increase in the gross domestic product in just two decades. Though China’s economic model does not seem implementable to every country as it is criticized for having stable politics and high economic growth at the cost of repression, it does justify the notion of particularity which is in contrast to universality as promoted by the US model. China’s upward trajectory has bolstered its global stature due to which countries once reliant on the US now view China as a viable alternative global power.

It has been reiterated by Jiang Zemin that the first two decades of the 21st century are a period of strategic opportunities for China which it must seize tightly.Accordingly, China has utilized its economic influence and has put forward various initiatives such as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI -2013), the recent Global Development Initiative (GDI-2021), the Global Security Initiative(GSI-2022), the Global Civilization Initiative (GCI-2023) and has been relentlessly pursuing the international community. China presents a new model of ‘Socialism with Chinese Characteristics’, incorporating Chinese wisdom and approach to solving global problems.

India, the immediate neighbor of China, playing a significant role in global politics, is critical of China’s BRI and its aggression on the Indian borders.  It has taken various measures to tackle the concerns posed by China’s initiatives.

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Author: Prajakta Vaware